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Table of Contents

  1. Welcome to the C-SAP mini-site!
  2. Introducing the theme of the mini-site - domestic violence
  3. What do you already know about domestic violence? Try this quiz to find out...
  4. Surprised by some of the answers to the quiz? Here's an opportunity to find out more about domestic violence...
  5. Now you know more about domestic violence, what about volunteering in this field while you're at university? Why not consider working on a domestic violence helpline...
  6. Want to know more about how you might volunteer in the field of domestic violence? Read Damian's account here...
  7. More on volunteering in the field of domestic violence while you're at university... Why not consider outreach work with young people?
  8. So what's it like volunteering in outreach work? Here's an interview with Kirsty, who volunteers for Safe and Sound; and a piece by Lesley, who worked with women and girls involved in prostitution...
  9. A link to a key way of finding volunteering opportunities near where you're located...
  10. Counselling: spotlighting a career route you might take after volunteering in the field of domestic violence and starting to study for postgraduate counselling qualifications...
  11. Real-life case studies of careers that might develop from volunteering in the field of domestic violence or related areas...
  12. Emily's experiences of working part-time while a Sociology student
  13. Doing outreach work with children - A discussion of work done at Nottinghamshire Domestic Violence Forum
  14. Being a Service Manager for Refuge and Children's Services - BA (Hons) Social and Cultural Studies graduate, Jennifer, talks about her career
  15. Joining the Police - An interview with Tracy, a Chief Inspector
  16. Being a Training Officer - Diane talks about her work at Safe and Sound, Derby
  17. Working for an Offender Learning and Skills Service Project - An interview with Katie, who has a BA (Hons) in Sociology and Criminology and is currently studying for an MA in Criminology
  18. From Nursing to Counselling, via the Prison Service - Daphne talks about her career
  19. Managing a Voluntary Sector Organisation - Yasmin talks about her role at Derby Women's Centre
  20. Called to the Bar - An interview with Georgina, a Barrister
  21. Working as a Journalist - An interview with James, a Deputy Editor of a national newspaper
  22. Teaching as a Career - An interview with Christina, who has a BA (Hons) Politics and a PGCE in English and Citizenship, and is now a Head-Teacher
  23. Getting Elected as a Local Councillor - An interview with Stephanie, who did Combined Honours in Sociology and English and has an MA in Gender Studies
  24. Getting Elected as an MP - An interview with Sally Keeble MP, who has a degree in Sociology
  25. A link to a key careers website...
  26. If the material in this mini-site has affected you, here are organisations that can offer help
  27. Conditions of use

What do you already know about domestic violence? Try this quiz to find out...

Domestic violence is a complex and challenging area and there are differing views of it.

What do you already know about it?

What might you need to consider further if you want to volunteer or pursue a career in this field or one related to it?

The quiz below, based on research and activism, and developed by Damian Carnell from Nottinghamshire Domestic Violence Forum, will start to show you...

Have a look at each question and click on the answer you think is correct.

A box will then appear telling you whether or not you have chosen the answer which is supported by research and activism. GREEN is for correct; PINK is for incorrect.

You'll also find more information in the quiz about the issues raised.

Separately from the quiz, you'll find some references for follow-up reading...

Please note: the quiz doesn't give you a score out of 20 - it's about developing knowledge and exploring complex issues, rather than achieving a particular percentage of correct answers.

1

1. How much of the reported violent crime to the Police do you think is Domestic Violence?

a)
b)
c)

Yes.

British Crime Surveys and Police statistics up to 2008 have on average found that domestic violence accounts for between 16% and 25% of all reports of violent crime to the Police. The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) reported in 2005 that of all hate crimes recorded by the CPS in 2004/5, domestic violence accounted for over 80% of them. (Note: Domestic violence is recognised by the Metropolitan Police Department as a 'Hate Crime' alongside racism and homophobia and other targeted violence on people because of their faith, disability or other focus for attack.)

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2

2. How many women will experience domestic violence at some point in their life?

a)
b)
c)

Yes.

Since 1994 there have been consistent findings both from qualitative and quantitative research methodologies that between 1 in 3 and 1 in 4 women in Britain experience domestic violence at some point in their lives. These findings are consistent with research from other countries including the USA, Canada, Nicaragua, Chile, South Africa, Ethiopia, Holland, Germany, Australia, Pakistan, Bulgaria and others. For more information see the following links - www.womensaid.org.uk, www.womankind.org.uk.

There is not the same consistency on the numbers of men experiencing domestic violence. Despite claims that 1 in 7 (British Crime Survey) to 1 in 12 men (Scottish Crime Survey) are victims of domestic violence, recent estimates, utilising a combination of statistics from British Crime Surveys and qualitative research data, suggests that potentially 1 in 140 men will genuinely experience domestic violence at some point in their life (see Carnell D. [2008] Supporting Men Who Experience Abuse From Intimate Partners. Nottinghamshire Domestic Violence Forum: www.ndvf.org.uk.

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3

3. How many men believe that domestic violence against women is justified?

a)
b)
c)

Yes.

The BBC in 2003 produced a series of programmes for their 'Hitting Home' season. They carried out a survey about the acceptability of domestic violence which found that 1 in 3 men thought it was acceptable. Research led by Jayne Mooney in 1994, 'The Hidden Figure', found 63% with this attitude and 1 in 5 men interviewed admitted to being abusive to female partners.

For more information about work to encourage men to end violence against women see: www.whiteribboncampaign.co.uk, www.womankind.org.uk, www.ndvf.org.uk.

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4

4. What do you think is the reason (or cause) for domestic violence against women by men?

a)
b)
c)

Yes.

We will all be aware of some forms of gender inequality where men are seen as more important than women, and boys more important than girls. In some areas of the world it is important for the first born to be a son and therefore thousands of girls are killed at birth, thousands of miscarriages are forced and mothers are sometimes killed too for not 'producing' a son.

There are still common sayings used in the UK that perpetuate male control of women, e.g. statements like 'a woman's place is in the home', 'she should be tied to the kitchen sink', 'a good wife always knows her place'.

Programmes for men who abuse women consistently find that the root to men's violence against women is in their beliefs in the right to control and dominate women. They use structures in society like culture, religion and traditions to support their position of authority and right to use 'force' to maintain their right to control. Have a look at the following websites for more information: www.womensaid.org.uk, www.object.org.uk, www.whiteribboncampaign.co.uk, www.ndvf.org.uk.


No.

It's not about drug and alcohol abuse or witnessing or experiencing abuse as a child.

There are many men with drug and alcohol issues who do not abuse women. So this theory is inconsistent, inaccurate and potentially harmful. Taking drugs or drinking alcohol does not give men beliefs of being superior to women, or the rights to ownership and dominance. We need to focus on what does encourage and reinforce these beliefs behind male violence against women.

It's not about seeing or experiencing abuse as a child. There are many men who perpetrate violence against women who did not see domestic violence as a child, who did not experience abuse as a child. There are many men who did see their dad abuse their mum and did experience abuse as children who do not, as adults, abuse women. So this theory is inconsistent, inaccurate and potentially harmful.

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5

5. How many women every week are killed in the UK by male partners or ex-partners?

a)
b)
c)

Yes.

British Crime Surveys (England & Wales) have consistently found that 2 women every week are killed by partners/ex-partners and 1 woman is killed by a male partner or ex-partner every week in Scotland (Scottish Crime Survey). The past couple of years have seen an increase in tougher sentencing for men who murder and a slight reduction in the number of women murdered by male partners/ex-partners. Domestic Violence homicides account for approximately 35% of all homicides in England and Wales.

See

Povey D. (ed.) (2005) Crime in England and Wales 2003/2004: Supplementary Volume 1: Homicide and Gun Crime.

Povey D, Coleman K, Kaiza P, Roe S. (2008) Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2007/08, Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England & Wales 2007/08.

On average 6% of men are killed by their partner/ex-partner. In 2007/8 this equalled 33 men. Many of these men were in fact the primary abuser. A study from 2007/8 found that 88% of intimate partner homicide perpetrators were male and 32% of the homicide victims were male. Although this study does not differentiate between heterosexual and same-sex relationships, the calculations do suggest that similar numbers of male victims of intimate partner homicide were killed by male and female partners. It also suggests that few, if any, women were killed by female partners.

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6

6. Which statement do you think is a more accurate answer to the common question about why a woman might stay with an abusive partner?

a)
b)
c)

Yes.

There are many barriers that can prevent women leaving and that make them return to abusive partners, including his threats to find her or kill her if she leaves, threats to kill the children or the pets, other family members (her or his parents) pressuring her to stay, self blame because others blame her for the abuse, religious influence to keep her with the abuser, staying because she and others think it's best for the children, feeling that she'll never be free of him so it might be safer or easier to stay, not knowing where to go, he could be her main carer due to disability, he could be her drug supplier if she is drug dependant. See www.womensaid.org.uk.


No.

It's not about seeking abusive partners or being equally abusive.

Some women will have been abused as children and some will not have been. Some women may have low self-esteem at the start of the abusive relationship and some may have had their self-esteem knocked down as a result of living with an abusive partner. But perpetrators do not act abusively at the start of a relationship. They use their charm. The fact that a woman may have got away from one abusive partner and found herself with another does not mean she looked for an abuser. It means that there are many men who are willing to abuse women. See Question 3.

Although there are some women who are the primary abusers, in most cases where there is a report of a woman being violent to a male partner, she is either defending herself from his abuse or resisting his assumed rights to control and dominate her. In most cases where there are reports that both partners have been violent there is usually one partner who is the predominant abuser and that is most often the male. See Question 13.

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7

7. Where there are reports of 4 or more incidents of abuse over a 12-month period by an intimate partner, what percentage of the survivors are men (gay, bisexual, trans and heterosexual)?

a)
b)
c)

Yes.

The British Crime Survey of 2001 found that 89% of survivors from 4 or more incidents of abuse in one year by a partner were women and 11% men.

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8

8. Which do you think is the correct finding in the South African research, 'A National Study of Female Homicide' from 2000?

a)
b)
c)

Yes.

Four women every day in South Africa are killed by intimate partners.

See Mathews, S., Abrahams, N., Martin, L., Van der Merwe, L., & Jewkes, R. (2004) "Every six hours a woman is killed by her intimate partner": A national study of female homicide in South Africa. 5. 2004. Cape Town, Medical: South Africa.

In America the average number of women killed by male partners each day is 13. You can begin to imagine the scale of the problem as you begin to add up the numbers of women killed by male partners each day from each country. See www.womankind.org.uk.

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9

9. True or False: In England there used to be a law allowing men to beat their partners with a stick no thicker than their thumb.

a)
b)

Yes, it's true.

Between 1767 and 1891 men in Britain had a legal right to 'beat their wives' with a stick no thicker than their thumb. There have been many other laws and rights for men to own and abuse women. In some countries this right for men is still protected. See www.womankind.org.uk, www.fawcettsociety.org.uk.

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10

10. True or false: rape within marriage is a criminal offence.

a)
b)
Yes. It's true.
No. It's true.

However, rape within marriage in Britain was legal until 1995 when a law was passed which recognised that rape within marriage existed and was a criminal offence. In some countries it is still legal. A high percentage of men today still believe they have this right over women, and this leads to much sexual violence against women.

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11

11. Which of the following statements describes the likely scenario for a person of immigration status fleeing their partner due to domestic violence and seeking local authority help?

a)
b)
c)

Yes.

If someone came to the UK to marry or join a partner of UK status, immigration rules insist on a 2-year probationary period before making an application for indefinite leave to remain in the UK. During this time the person must stay with their partner. Being subject to immigration controls most often means, with few complex exceptions, that they will be unable to claim state benefits including Housing Benefit, Homelessness Assistance, Child Benefit, Income Support etc. This is known as 'no recourse to public funds'.

If someone in this situation is experiencing domestic violence, the abuser (and/or his family) may use the insecure immigration status as part of the abuse, taking away her passport and other documents, denying outside contact and information about rights. Even if someone has completed the two-year probationary period, they may never have had their immigration status confirmed because they have been abusively kept unaware of the procedures. Reporting the abuse to anyone - or leaving the abusive partner - increases the risk of being deported and of more severe abuse from the perpetrator, his family and other collaborators too.

Women's Aid will make every effort to find refuge and would have to fund this space through their emergency fund, as they would not receive any local authority funding to cover the refuge costs for the woman and children

If the survivor, subject to the two-year probationary period, can produce evidence of the domestic violence they may be able to apply for indefinite leave to remain in the UK. But to qualify for leave to remain in the UK as a victim of domestic violence, they have to show that domestic violence occurred during this probationary period and was the reason for the breakdown of this relationship. They must also have clear evidence of the domestic violence by way of the following forms of 'proof':

- A non-molestation order or other protection order

- A relevant court conviction against their partner

- Full details of a relevant police caution

If none of the above is available, they will need two or more of the following

- A letter from a refuge organisation or other domestic violence service confirming the support received and the experience of domestic violence.

- A medical report from a hospital doctor or GP confirming that she has injuries consistent with being the victim of domestic violence.

- A police report confirming their attendance to an incident of domestic violence.

- A letter from a Social Worker confirming their involvement due to domestic violence.

- A Court injunction.

For further details visit www.womensaid.org.uk


No.

Women in this situation will not be entitled to benefits. Efforts will be made to try and re-house the woman and children but it is not guaranteed and the options are very limited because of her immigration status and lack of benefit rights.

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12

12. What is the estimated percentage of marriages in Afghanistan where a woman (or girl) is forced to marry?

a)
b)
c)
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13

13. What percentage of men who disclose being a victim of domestic violence are in fact the primary perpetrator?

a)
b)
c)

Yes.

Nottinghamshire Domestic Violence Forum's own research carried out between 2002 and 2003 and the Dyn Project research of 2006 both found high numbers of men presenting as victims to be the primary abuser. Similar concerns were also identified in 2002 by Gadd et al from Keele University. See

Carnell D. (2008) Supporting Men Who Experience Abuse From (Male or Female) Intimate Partners: A guide for good practice, Nottinghamshire Domestic Violence Forum

Gadd D., Farrall S., Dallimore D. & Lombard N. (2002) Domestic Abuse Against Men in Scotland, Scottish Executive Central Research Unit: Edinburgh

Robbinson, A. & Rowlands, J. (2006) The Dyn Project - Supporting Men Experiencing Domestic Abuse, University of Cardiff: Wales

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14

14. Domestic violence is a feature in what percentage of same sex relationships?

a)
b)
c)

Yes.

Research into gay, lesbian and bisexual relationships consistently finds that domestic violence is happening on average in a quarter of all same sex relationships.

See

Cruz J M. (2000) Gay male domestic violence and the pursuit of masculinity, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA.

Donovan, C., Hester, M., Holmes, J., and McCarry, M. (2006) Comparing domestic abuse in same sex and heterosexual relationships, University of Sunderland and University of Bristol

Ristick, J. (2002) No more secrets: violence in lesbian relationships, Routledge

Merrill G S. & Wolfe VA. (2000) Battered Gay Men: An exploration of abuse, help seeking and why they stay, Journal of Homosexuality. 39 (2), 1-30

Renzetti C. M. & Miley C. H. (1996) Violence in Gay and Lesbian Domestic Partnerships, Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 14(1), 1-116.

Robbinson A. & Rowlands J. (2006) The Dyn Project - Supporting Men Experiencing Domestic Abuse, University of Cardiff: Wales

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15

15. How many gay men experience sexual abuse from an intimate partner as part of domestic violence?

a)
b)
c)

Yes.

This high rate is consistent with men's sexual violence against female partners. Merrill and Wolfe (2000), through interviews with gay survivors, also found that 56% of the perpetrators demanded 'make up sex' immediately after the abuse and 13% tried to force sex with the intention to inflict HIV and AIDS on the survivors.

See

Merrill G S. & Wolfe V A. (2000) Battered Gay Men: An exploration of abuse, help seeking and why they stay, Journal of Homosexuality. 39 (2), 1-30

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16

16. How many teenage girls do you think experience violence from boyfriends?

a)
b)
c)

Yes.

The Sugar Magazine (in partnership with NSPCC) in 2006 carried out a survey of its readers about intimate relationship violence and sex, called the 'Be S.A.F.E.**Before Sex' campaign.

As well as 20% of girls disclosing that they had been hit by a boyfriend, 10% had been threatened with violence if they didn't have sex, 10% were bribed with money and gifts, 10% were actually physically hurt, almost 50% were made to feel guilty for saying 'no' with 30% of the girls feeling powerless to do anything to stop being forced to have sex.

See www.respectnotfear.co.uk

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17

17. Where domestic violence is in a household with children, how many incidents will the children see or hear?

a)
b)
c)

Yes.

Domestic violence is now recognised as a safeguarding children concern. Not only is the witnessing of domestic violence harmful to children but many children are directly abused as part of the domestic violence. Have a look at: www.thehideout.org.uk

75% of UK children on safeguarding registers are affected by domestic violence (Department of Health, 2003). Male perpetrators of domestic violence often use child contact to track and stalk their former partners. Women and children are at most risk of homicide soon after they leave the abuser (Paradine & Wilkinson, 2004).

76% of children ordered by the Courts to have contact with a violent parent were abused during contact - 10% were sexually abused, 15% were physically abused, 26% were abducted or involved in an abduction attempt, 36% were neglected during contact and 62% suffered emotional harm (Radford et al (1999), 'Unreasonable Fears').

See also

Ashworth A. (1998) Once In a House on Fire, Picador: London

Hughes H. (1992) Impact of Spouse Abuse on Children of Battered Women, Violence Update, August 1, pp. 9-11.

Mullender A. & Morley R. (1994) Children Living With Domestic Violence, Whiting & Birch Ltd: England

Radford L., Sayer S. & Amica (1999) Unreasonable Fears, Women's Aid Federation of England: Bristol

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18

18. True or False: Men who apply for child contact as a result of separation are usually denied it?

a)
b)

Yes. It's false.

Courts almost always award violent partners contact when an application is made. The trend has been to reduce the number of contact application refusals by the Courts, contrary to how it is presented in the media and by pressure groups such as Fathers 4 Justice and Families Need Fathers.

In 1999 = 95.80% of child contact applications were granted by the Courts

In 2000 = 97.25% of child contact applications were granted by the Courts

In 2001 = 98.70% of child contact applications were granted by the Courts

In 2002 = 99.15% of child contact applications were granted by the Courts

(Judicial Statistics, 2002, Lord Chancellors Department)

Even when concerns are raised by professionals such as Social Workers, Women's Aid and Health Workers, Courts favour contact. The Judicial Statistics of 2005 found that 99.9% of private law contact orders were granted, though concerns about the safety of children or the resident parent were raised in 35% of the contact applications in that year. There are growing numbers of cases where children are being killed by the domestic abusive parent, often at the first unsupervised contact visit.

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19

19. In Canada, young parents aged 15 - 24 represent 2% of all parents, but what percentage of homicides against infant children were perpetrated by young parents?

a)
b)
c)

Yes.

Log onto www.justice.gc.ca to find out more from research and intervention work on domestic violence in Canada.

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20

20. What is the percentage range found from research highlighting the number of men who, as part of their domestic abuse against women partners, also directly abuse the children?

a)
b)
c)

Yes.

See Radford L., Sayer S. & Amica (1999) Unreasonable Fears, Women's Aid Federation of England: Bristol

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References used in the quiz...
& References to further reading and research

(There are vast amounts of research and reading material about domestic violence issues. The list below is just a small sample...)

Photo: a Nottinghamshire Domestic Violence Forum publication - one of many academic articles and books you can read about domestic violence.
© Damien Carnell 2009


Older People and Domestic Violence:

Blood, I. (2004) Older women and domestic violence, Help The Aged: London

Scott, M. et al.(2004) Older women and domestic violence in Scotland, Health Scotland: Edinburgh.

Barron, J. (2007) Older women and domestic violence: An overview, Women's Aid Federation of England: Bristol. Available at

http://www.womensaid.org.uk


Children and Domestic Violence and Abuse in Young People's own Relationships:

Ashworth A. (1998) Once in a house on fire, Picador: London

Hughes H. (1992) Impact of spouse abuse on children of battered women, Violence Update, August 1, pp. 9-11.

Mullender A. & Morley R. (1994) Children living with domestic violence, Whiting & Birch Ltd: England

Radford L., Sayer S. & Amica (1999) Unreasonable fears, Women's Aid Federation of England: Bristol

Schutt, N. (2006) Domestic violence in adolescent relationships: Young people in Southwark and their experiences with unhealthy relationships, Safer Southwark Partnership: London


Health Issues and Domestic Violence:

Barron, J. (2004) Struggle to survive: Challenges for delivering services on mental health, substance misuse and domestic violence, Women's Aid Federation of England: Bristol

Radford, J, Harne, L and Trotter, J (n.d.) Good intentions - Disabling realities: Disabled women experiencing domestic violence, Middlesbrough Domestic Violence Forum


Domestic Violence in Same Sex Relationships:

Cruz JM. (2000) Gay Male Domestic Violence and the pursuit of masculinity, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA.

Donovan, C., Hester, M., Holmes, J., and McCarry, M. (2006) Comparing domestic abuse in same sex and heterosexual relationships, University of Sunderland and University of Bristol

Ristick, J. (2002) No more secrets: violence in lesbian relationships, Routledge

Merrill GS. & Wolfe VA. (2000) Batterred Gay Men: An exploration of abuse, help seeking and why they stay, Journal of Homosexuality. 39 (2), 1-30

Renzetti C.M. & Miley C.H. (1996) Violence in Gay and Lesbian Domestic Partnerships, Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 14(1), 1-116.


Women's Abuse against Male Partners:

Carnell D. (2008) Supporting men who experience abuse from (male or female) intimate partners: A guide for good practice, Nottinghamshire Domestic Violence Forum

Das Dasgupta S. (2001) Towards an understanding of women's use of non-lethal violence in intimate heterosexual relationships

Gadd D., Farrall S., Dallimore D. & Lombard N. (2002) Domestic abuse against men in Scotland, Scottish Executive: Edinburgh

Robbinson A. & Rowlands J. (2006) The Dyn Project - supporting men experiencing domestic abuse, University of Cardiff: Wales


Black Asian Minority Ethnic & Refugee Domestic Violence Issues:

Parmar, A., Sampson, A., and Diamond, A. (2005) Tackling domestic violence: Providing advocacy and support to survivors from Black and other ethnic minority communities, Home Office Development and Practice Report, Home Office: London

Thiara, R. (2006) African-Caribbean women and children affected by domestic violence in Wolverhampton, The Haven, Wolverhampton

Siddiqui, H. (2007) BME women's struggles against forced marriage and honour based violence, Safe (Summer 2007), Women's Aid Federation of England, Bristol

Ahluwalia K. & Gupta K. (1997) Circle of light, Harper Collins: London


Male Violence Against Women and general domestic violence research:

Finney A. (2006) Domestic violence, sexual assault & stalking: findings from the 2004/5 British Crime Survey, Home Office, Crown Copyright

Mathews S., Abrahams N., Martin L., Van der Merwe L & Jewkes R (2004), Every six hours a woman is killed by her intimate partner: A national study of female homicide in South Africa, Cape Town: South Africa

Mooney J. (1994) The hidden figure: domestic violence in north London, Islington Crime Prevention Unit, Islington Council: London

Povey D. (ed.) (2005) Crime in England and Wales 2003/2004: Supplementary Volume 1: Homicide and Gun Crime, Home Office: England & Wales

Povey D (ed), Coleman K, Kaiza P, Roe S (2008) Homicides, firearm offences and intimate violence 2007/08, supplementary volume 2 to Crime in England & Wales 2007/08, Home Office: England & Wales

Walby S. & Allen J. (2004) Domestic violence, sexual assault and stalking - findings from the BCS, Home Office Research, Home Office: England & Wales



On the next page, you'll find academic material on domestic violence and have an opportunity to research key questions...




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